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We operate in more than 50 countries around the world. If your country is not on the list, please refer to our global contacts.

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We operate in more than 50 countries around the world. If your country is not on the list, please refer to our global contacts.

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We operate in more than 50 countries around the world. If your country is not on the list, please refer to our global contacts.

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We operate in more than 50 countries around the world. If your country is not on the list, please refer to our global contacts.

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Pest Information

What are the common pests in Singapore, do you want to know more:

Pest Information

Many of us only know rodent as rats. Rodents belong to an order of mammals called Rodentia, characterised by two continuously-growing in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing.

Rodents are nocturnal creatures (active in the night). They usually search for food between dusk and dawn, but when hungry or living under crowded conditions, you may see them in the daylight. So, their present in the daytime may indicate heavy infestation.

They have poor eyesight and are colour blind but have excellent sense of hearing, smell, taste and touch. Their highly developed sense of touch enables them to move quickly in the dark by running close to the wall. This explains the oily smears often seen around the edges of a room.

Their behaviour is “predictable” because they tend to develop regular routes and therefore produce well-defined runways. Rodents have weak bladder, so they urinates and defecates while feeding.

Rodents are neophobia (the fear of new things), which makes them cautious. Any new object in their territory will take them several days before they will accept it. So, do not expect to catch them immediately after you placed a trap.

The 3 most common types of rats in Singapore are Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), Roof rat (Rattus rattus) and House mouse (Mus musculus).

1. Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Also known as brown rat and sewer rat, the Norway rat is the largest of the commensal rodents. The length of head and body is 170 – 260 mm, and the tail, which is bi-coloured, is shorter than the combined length of head and body. It has a stocky body that weighs 150 – 600 gm. Fur is coarse and shaggy with brown upper parts, black and greyish under parts. The muzzle is blunt, eyes and ears are small. Adult droppings are up to 20mm long with blunt ends. .


  • Adults reach sexual maturity in 2-3 months. Female produce 3-6 litters per year, with 8-12 youngs per litter. They live about 1 year.


  • Nocturnal and have poor visual acuity, but have excellent sense of hearing, smell, taste and touch.
  • Excellent swimmer, highly intelligent and are shy about new objects reflecting its “neophobia” nature. So, it develops bait and trap shyness very easily.
  • Is omnivorous, eating what we eat and consumes up to 10% its body weight per day.
  • Having weak bladder, it urinates and defecates (about 40 droppings per day, remaining moist for a day) while feeding.
  • Leaves distinct rub marks on walls, caused by its body’s oil and dirt gathered from the places it visits.
  • Display strong tendency for burrowing, especially into soil banks, concrete pads, rock piles, next to building, etc. the burrows typically have one main entry hole and at least one escape hole. Indoors, they prefer to nest in the lower levels of the building e.g. floor spaces, basement, loading dock and sewers.
  • Their foraging range is 20-50 metres from the nest.


2. Roof Rat (Rattus rattus)

Also known as black rat and ship rat, they are average size and very agile. The length of head and body is 150-200mm with the tail longer than the combined length of head and body. The fur is soft, smooth and uniformly dark in colour. The muzzle is pointed, eyes and ears are large, and the scaly tail is uniformly dark in colour. Adult droppings are up to 13 mm long and spindle-shaped with pointed ends.

The black rat, Rattus rattus, hides and stores its food reserve in false ceilings, granaries and shelving areas. It penetrates into premises through cellars, ventilators, cracks and faulty doorframes.


  • Adults reach sexual maturity in 2-3 months. Female produce 4-6 litters per year, with 6-8 youngs per litter. They live about 1 year.


  • Nocturnal and have poor visual acuity, but have excellent sense of hearing, smell, taste and touch.
  • They are shy about new objects and very suspicious of the unfamiliar reflecting its “neophobia” nature. So, it develops bait and trap shyness very easily.
  • Having weak bladder, it urinates and defecates (about 40 droppings per day, remaining moist for a day) while feeding. They prefer fruits, vegetables and cereals.
  • Outdoors, roof rats prefer to nest in trees and occasionally in burrows and vegetation. Indoors, they can be found in the upper levels of building, in basements and sewers. Nests are often made of fine shredded paper or other fibrous materials.
  • Excellent climber, swimmer and jumper.
  • Leaves distinct rub marks on walls, caused by its body’s oil and dirt gathered from the places it visits.
  • Their foraging range is 20-50 metres from the nest.

3. House Mouse (Mus musculus

House Mouse is approximately 6-10 cm in length, can be greyish to brown in colour. They can be found at houses and food stores, building its nest in walls, stored goods, furniture and cabinets. The muzzle is pointed, the ears are large, the eyes and body are small. Adult droppings are 3-6 mm long and rod-shaped with pointed ends.


  • The female house mouse reaches sexual maturity at 1-2 months old with 5-8 mice per litter, and 8 litters per year. They live about 1 year.


  • House mouse is good climber, jumper and swimmer.
  • Being nocturnal, they have poor visual acuity, navigate using their whiskers. Have excellent sense of hearing, smell, taste and touch.
  • Having weak bladder, it urinates and defecates (50-100 droppings per day, which become brittle after 3 hours) while feeding.
  • Prefer to nest in dark secluded areas where nesting materials such as paper, cardboard, attic insulation, cotton, etc. are readily available.
  • Will travel their entire home range (no more than 10 metres) daily, investigating changes and new objects (gnaw at as many as 30 different sites per night).

Mosquitoes can carry many different kinds of diseases including malaria, heartworm, dengue fever, encephalitis and yellow fever. Every year, over one million people worldwide die from mosquito-borne diseases.

Only female Mosquito requires blood to develop fertile eggs. Males do not lay eggs, thus, male mosquitoes do not bite. Female mosquitoes lay multiple batches of eggs and require a blood meal for every batch they lay. Few people realize that mosquitoes rely on sugar as their main source of energy. Both male and female mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, fruit juices, and liquids from plants. The sugar is burned as fuel for flight and is replenished on a daily basis.

The antennae of Mosquito that prey on humans contain receptors that respond to carbon dioxide, sweat odour, moisture, temperature, movement and colour.

Mosquito go through four-stage life cycle: egg, larvae, pupa and adult. Given ideal conditions, this life cycle can be completed within one week.

Mosquito are known to transfer the following viruses from infected to non-infected persons:

- Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are responsible for dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever

- Anopheles maculates, Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles letifer are associated with malaria

- Culex quinquefasciatus spreads filariasis

- Culex tritaeniorhyncus and Culex gelidus inflict Japanese B encephalitis

1. Culex Mosquitoes 

Thorax, legs and veins on the wings are always covered with brown scales. Most Culex is dull in colour. The tip of the abdomen is always blunt. Culex mosquitoes commonly regarded as nuisance pest, it is responsible for Elephantiasis and Japanese B-encephalitis.


  • Breed in organically-polluted water for e.g. ditches, drains, water-pools, etc. several species of Culex mosquitoes do breed in artificial containers such as water tanks and bottles.
  • Most Culex mosquitoes bite at night and the peak biting times is from midnight to 3am.
  • They usually rest indoor at cool and dark places before and after the blood meal. Sometimes, they may rest outdoor at drains and tall grasses.

2. Aedes Mosquitoes 

Almost all Aedes mosquitoes have black and white markings on the body; some have silvery scales on its thorax. It is vectors of the dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever.


  • Most species breed in container habitat (man-made or natural) such as tree holes, roof gutters, leaf axils, jars, etc.
  • Mostly found in clean water inside or outside houses, breeds in natural and artificial containers outdoor in wooded areas.
  • Aedes mosquitoes are day bitter. Their peak biting times is at dawn and dusk.

Cockroaches are ancient insects having existed very successfully, relatively unchanged, for approximately 400 million years. This means that they have inhabited Earth 100 times longer than humans. Presently there are 3,500 known species, most of which are tropical.

The three common pest cockroach in many homes and buildings in Singapore are:

  • American cockroach, Periplaneta americana
  • German cockroach, Blattella germanica
  • Brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa

Cockroaches are generally omnivorous. They feed on almost any kind of foodstuff available; faecal matter, rotting waste material and garbage at the bin chute to the food on your dining table. Their habit of regurgitating food and defecating while feeding and those unsanitary substances carried in and on their body can transmit dysentery, gastro-enteritis, hepatitis and typhoid.

Cockroaches can survive sterile surgical decapitation for a very long period, especially if recently fed, but of course become unable to feed and die within a few weeks. They are among the hardiest insects on the planet, some species capable of remaining active for a month without food,

Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases (ootheca) on the end of their abdomen; the egg case of the German cockroach holds about 30–40 eggs. She then drops the capsule prior to hatching in some protected place where the young (nymphs) will find food, shelter and water. Nymphs look like small, wingless adults.

Cockroaches are active at night. When cockroaches are seen during the day, it is a sign that many more are hiding, meaning heavy infestation. They prefer to hide in tight places, like cracks in walls, gaps in joints, or under piles of trash. They are attracted to dark, warm and humid places.

1. German Cockroach (Blattella germanica

Adult measures 10 -15 mm in length and light brown in colour. Reproducing female carries a protruding egg casing called ootheca up to 24 hours before hatching.

Biology and behaviour

  • They are usually found in kitchens and food preparation areas with abundance of water and food.
  • Mostly introduced into buildings through carton boxes and infested equipment. Once inside, they hide in cracks and crevices where they spend 75% of their life in.
  • Beside human food, they feed on anything including soap, toothpaste and glue.
  • Attaches faeces containing a pheromone that encourages aggregation and mating.
  • They are nocturnal creature, meaning active at night. See them in the day indicate heavy infestation.
  • The female produce 4 – 8 oothecae (30 days incubation) in her lifetime with each contain 30 – 40 eggs.
  • Egg to adult takes about 2 months. Adults live up to 1 year.  

2. American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana

Adult measures 35 – 40 mm in length and reddish brown in colour with pale brown border at pronotum. Female has a broader abdomen and a pair of cerci. Reproducing female, using secretion from her mouth, glues her egg casing to host surfaces within 4 days after it is formed.

Biology and behaviour

  • Mostly found in sewers/manholes, bin centre and rubbish chutes which are usually warm and damp.
  • They usually introduced into building through self-entry. Once inside it will find harbourage in cupboards, kitchen cabinets and carton boxes.
  • Feed on variety of food but prefer fermenting foods.
  • It produces foul smelling secretion which taints food, therefore, unfit for human consumption.
  • The female produce 10 – 90 oothecae (30 days incubation) during her lifetime at an interval of 4 – 10 days which contains 14 – 16 eggs each.
  • Egg to adult takes 5 – 6 months. Adult live about 1 year. 

3. Brown-banded Cockroach (Supella longipalpa

Adult measures 10 – 14 mm in length and is light brown in colour. Has dark pronotum, and have 2 light, yellow-brown bands running across their bodies. Female is darker in colour with a broader and rounder posterior, short wings exposing a pair of cerci. Reproducing female carries the egg capsule for 24 – 36 hours, then using secretions from her mouth, attaches it to protected areas.

Biology and behaviour

  • Brown-banded cockroach prefers a warmer and drier environment.
  • Commonly found in the bedroom and living room.
  • They prefer to feed on starchy foods.
  • Female produces about 13 oothecae (10 days incubation) during her lifetime which contains 14 – 18 eggs each.
  • Egg to adult takes about 4 months.
  • Adult lives up to 115 days

Flies are the fourth largest order of insects, totaling more than 120,000 species. Relatively few interact with humans but those that do are amongst the most destructive, spreading diseases to man and domesticated animals as well as contaminating food and packaging.

Most flies serve a crucial role in nature. House flies, for example, breed in animal manure helping to recycle its nutrients back to the soil. Blow flies, flesh flies and other flies are important contributors to the decomposition of animal carcasses.

When a fly enters a building, lands on food to feed, or bites a person, it become a pest. Most people consider house flies and fruit flies to be only nuisances. These flies and others, however, are capable of carrying disease-causing organism on their bodies because of their filthy feeding and breeding habits. Mosquito and other biting flies have been the cause of much human misery and death throughout history.

1. Houseflies (Musca domestica

The adult housefly is about 4-7.5 mm long. Although the female is usually larger than the male, it is the space between the eyes distinguishes the sexes, which in females is almost twice as broad as in males. They are dull grey in colour with four dark stripes on the back of the thorax. The head is dominated by large red-brown compound eyes surrounded by a light gold stripe. They have sponging mouthparts.

Flies are of significance to health because of their mechanical transmission of diseases such as typhoid, diarrhoea, polio, salmonellosis and cholera.

Biology and behaviour

  • These flies will migrate up to 20km from their breeding sites but most stay within 3km of its breeding site.
  • Adult feeds on liquids but can eat solid food by liquefying it with regurgitated digestive tract fluids. While feeding it secretes dark faecal spots and when resting it exudes light straw-coloured vomit spots.
  • During the day, houseflies tend to rest less than 1.5 metres above the ground on ceilings, walls, floors, and various objects. At night, they rest primarily above this height. Their night resting-places are usually near their daytime food sources.
  • The female lay their eggs singly but in cluster of 75 -150 eggs on moist organic waste including animal manure, grass clippings, garbage, etc. which is food for the larvae that emerge within 1 day.
  • The creamy white larvae are spindle shaped and undergo 3 instar. At the end of 3 days, they migrate to drier portions of the breeding medium to pupate for another 3 days before emerging as adults.

2. Fruit Flies/Vinegar Flies (Drosophila spp.)

The adult is approximately 3mm in length, including the wings with tan coloured head and thorax, with a blackish abdomen, the under surface of which is grey. A Key character is its bright red eyes which easily distinguishes it from the phorid fly – a fly which is often confused with the fruit fly.

Biology and behaviour

  • The Fruit Fly or Vinegar Fly is a small fly that can pass through ordinary screening and is common in homes, restaurants, fruit markets, canneries, and similar places.
  • This fly is attracted to human and animal excrement and will also feed on fruits and uncooked foods. If digested, it will cause diarrhoea.
  • It breeds in and feeds on ripened fruits and vegetables, as well as moist, decaying, organic matter. It often visits unsanitary areas, and has the potential to carry disease-causing bacteria into food products.
  • The female lay about 500 eggs on moist, decaying organic matter, ripened fruits and vegetables, which is the food for the larvae that emerge about 30 hours later.
  • The maggots may be found near the top of the jars and also live in the briny or vinegary-like liquids, hence the name “vinegar flies”.
  • The larvae feed for 5 – 6 days before crawl to drier areas to pupate and the adult emerge another several days later.
  • Under ideal conditions, the life cycle from egg to adult can be completed within 8 days.
3. Moth Flies (Family Psychodidae) 

Also known as sewer flies and drain flies. Moth flies are small flies up to 3 mm in length including the wings. They are usually black or brown in colour with the entire body and wings of the moth flies covered with tiny hairs giving it a moth-like appearance.

Biology and behaviour

It is more than a nuisance flies when found breeding in large numbers and especially inside food production areas and health care facilities where it could result in these organisms being carried onto food products or into sterile areas in hospitals.

  • Adult moth flies are poor fliers and are usually found on walls or flying weakly in the area where they breed. Adults are more active at night and are seen hovering near breeding site.
  • Adults feed on nectar and polluted water.
  • The female lay 30-100 eggs on the surface of the gelatinous film inside a drain or on top of decaying organic matter which is the food for the larvae that emerge 2 days later. The larvae will feed for several days before pupating and the adult emerge about 1 day later.

When found in small numbers within structures where they breed in drains, dirty garbage containers and septic tanks, moth flies is just a nuisance flies.

4. Phorid Flies (Family Phoridae)

Also known as humpbacked flies, phorid flies are small flies up to 3 mm in length including the wings. They are usually tan to dark brown in colour. The most prominent feature of this fly is the humpbacked shape of its thorax. The phorid flies lacks the red eyes of the fruit flies. The most easily recognized feature is the habit of the adult Phorid fly running rapidly across surfaces instead of immediately flying when disturbed. Most flies immediately take flight.

Biology and behaviour

  • Adult Phorid flies are fairly common in many habitats, but are most abundant about decaying plant and animal matter.
  • When searching for Phorid fly breeding sources, remember that the larva can only survive in decaying organic matter that is moist. The first obvious place to check is where any fruits or vegetables or stored outside of refrigerators or coolers. Other areas to inspect would be recycling bins, seldom used (or cleaned) garbage cans, underneath and behind large appliances.
  • Do not overlook drains where small flies are often found breeding in the super thin layer or film of debris that naturally accumulates in pipes, traps and drains.
  • In commercial and residential structures, tiny amounts of organic debris are often found where the legs or feet of appliances, tables or cabinets touch the floor. These tiny spaces can harbour thousands of fly larvae. All small cracks and crevices at floor level need to be inspected and thoroughly cleaned.
  • The female will lay about 20 eggs at a time on or near the surface of decaying organic matter and will lay about 40 eggs in a 12 hour period.
  • Larvae emerge in 24 hours and feed for 8 to 16 days.
  • The life cycle from egg to adult can be completed in as little as 14 days (under ideal conditions) but may take as long as 37 days to complete their cycle.

Termites, commonly known as “white ants”, belong to the insect order Isoptera, an ancient insect group that dates back more than 100 million years. The Latin name Isoptera means "equal wing” and refers to the fact that the front set of wings on a reproductive termite (winged termite) is similar in size and shape to the hind set.

Termites are classified under 3 main groups:

Damp wood termites feed on decayed wood such as old tree stumps, rotting logs and pieces of buried timber. Once established, they are able to move into sound wood structure in buildings.

Drywood termites are normally found in drywood, very often in the structural timber of buildings. Palletized droppings are usually found on exit holes of the infested wood.

Subterranean termites build nest in the soil and are very dependent on soil for moisture. While foraging above ground for source of cellulosic food like wood in homes, subterranean termites build mud tubes to protect themselves because they are vulnerable to desiccation when exposed to air.

In a termite colony, there is division of labour between the different types of individuals (castes), example: king, queen, alates (swarmer), reproductives, soldiers and workers. Each caste has its specific function.

Termites are considered to be amongst the most destructive insect pests in the world. It is estimated that the annual damage caused to buildings and structures is in billions of US dollars. However, in nature, termites make many positive contributions to the world's ecosystems. Their greatest contribution is the role they play in breaking down fallen trees and other dying plant matter. Their tunneling efforts also help to ensure that soils are porous, contain nutrients, and are healthy enough to support plant growth.

Ants are social insects classified in the family formicidae, under the order Hymenoptera. Today, more than 10,000 species of ants have been identified by mankind, with another twice as many the number still yet to be discovered.

Ant colonies are sometimes described as “Superorganisms” because these creatures appear to operate as a unified entity, where daily activities such as food gathering, colony moving, breeding and even self defence are carried in as a unit made of thousands of individuals.

The specific function of each individual adult in a colony is determined by the existence of a caste system. Ant colonies contain two basic castes; the reproductive individuals such as the queens and the non-reproductive individuals which are mainly the workers. Workers do all sorts of work in the colony such as foraging for food, tending the queen and the young, also, defending the colony from outside enemies.

Ants communicate with each other using pheromones. Foraging ants that finds food marks a trail on the way back to the colony; this trail is then followed by other ants to locate the food source and bring the food back to the colony.

Food are share within the colony through a food exchanging process called trophollaxis whereby food or other fluids among members are transfer through mouth-to-mouth ( stomodeal) or
anus-to-mouth ( proctodeal) feeding.

1. Pharaoh Ant 

Pharaoh ant is approximately 2.5-3.0 mm in length and is usually light yellow to reddish brown in colour.

Biology and behaviour

  • Nest can be anywhere in dark void in structures and can be found in any secluded, warm location in buildings, especially where moisture is abundant
  • Common nest locations include wall voids, cabinet voids, space behind base boards and window mouldings, etc.
  • Omnivorous, preferring sweet and proteinaceous food.
  • Foraging may take them far from their nests, thus making the locating of their nest difficult.

2. Sugar Ant/Ghost Ant (Tapinoma melanocephalom

Ghost ant is very small in size, less than 2 mm in length. Is has dark head and thorax but light coloured gaster and legs.

Biology and behaviour

  • Nests outdoor but may nests indoor under moist environment.
  • Outdoor nesting include in the soil, rotten wood, decayed tree parts, under and inside logs, leaf axils beneath flower pots, etc.
  • Prefer sugar-based food.

3. Tropical Fire Ant ( Solenopsis geminate)

Tropical fire ant is 2.4 -6 mm in length and is yellow to reddish brown in colour.

Biology and behaviour

  • Nests outdoor but will forage indoors for food
  • Mound builders. Mound often found at the base of trees and shrubs, inside rotting logs, under potted plants, etc
  • Prefer protein and oil-based food

4. Crazy Ant (Paratrechina longicornis) 

Crazy ant is usually dark brown to black in colour and approximately 3 mm in length. It has very long leg and antennae. It moves erratically when disturbed.

Biology and behaviour

  • Nests primarily outdoors but often forage indoor for food
  • Indoor nesting is possible under moist environment
  • Can be found nesting under flower pots, piles of wood lying on the soil, etc. Often the first to infest new building
  • Feed on variety of food but prefer sugar-based

The common bed bugs are about 5 mm long, 3 mm wide, broadly oval, flat, brown to reddish brown true bugs. Bed bugs have very thin, vertically flattened bodies covered with short, golden-coloured hairs.

Biology and behaviour

  • Bed bugs live in loose groups or clusters and have a tendency to occupy cracks and crevices
  • They prefer to live as close as possible to their hosts and will quickly establish themselves in cracks, crevices, seams associated with headboards, bed frames and mattresses
  • Mostly active at night but will seek blood meals in daytime at dark areas
  • Bed bugs give off a very distinctive musty and sweetish odour from their scent gland
  • They often void remains of their last partially digested blood meal during their next feeding, resulting in the typical rusty spots seen on bed sheets
  • Their bite is generally painless and usually go undetected
  • Female produce 1 – 5 eggs per day, 200 – 500 eggs in her life time
  • Eggs usually take 6 -10 days to hatch, egg to adult takes about 4 weeks
  • Typically live up to 316 days, without feeding, adults can live for several months

Booklice (psocids) range from 1-2 mm in length but some outdoor winged barklouse species can be as large as 7 mm. They can be almost colourless to gray or light brown with long, filamentous antennae.

Biology and behaviour

  • Most psocids are inhabitants, winged as adults and commonly found on the bark of trees and shrubs (thus giving them the name barklice)
  • They have chewing mouthparts and the wings of the home-infesting species are usually absent or reduced to small scales
  • They are extremely flattened and are common around cracks and crevices
  • Beside feeding on microscopic molds, booklice have been observed feeding on starchy foods such as glue of book bindings and wallpaper
  • Booklice can be readily introduced to new structures on building materials, as well as upon furniture, boxes, books, etc.
  • Once inside, they can be found on the walls, in wall voids, behind electrical outlets, upon air conditioning elements, etc.
  • The life cycle from egg to adult can be completed in about 1 month
  • Adult live 24 – 110 days

Adult fleas are very small insects about 2-3 mm, reddish brown to black, wingless, and are compressed from side to side. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts through which they obtain blood meals from their hosts.

Biology and behaviours

  • Upon locating a host, the cat flea initiates feeding within seconds and will mate within 24 hours
  • Female begin producing eggs within 36 to 48 hours of the first blood meal
  • While feeding, cat fleas excrete large quantities of incompletely digested blood that dries into reddish-black fecal pellets or “flea-dirt” which eventually falls off the host into the environment where it serves as essential food for the larvae
  • Newly developed flea will remain within the cocoon until host presence stimulates them to emerge; this explains the phenomenon in which returning vacationers are covered by fleas upon entering their homes
  • In the absent of their preferred host (dog or cat), fleas will seek a blood meal from humans
  • Under most household conditions, the majority of cat fleas can complete their life cycle within 3-5 weeks

The hornet is the most dangerous flying insects in Singapore. It sting by injecting a proteinaceous substance into the wound and this causes allergic reactions, which is fatal in severe cases such as anaphylactic shock.

Unlike the bees, which can only sting once (due to its fishhook-like sting which causes it to left behind after one sting) and die thereafter, hornet can repeatedly sting its victim. In addition, hornets can mobilize the entire nest to sting in defense; this is highly dangerous to human.

Scientifically, hornet are social wasps refer to members belong to the family Vespidae. There are 3 common species in Singapore:

  • Lesser banded hornet (Vespa affinis)
  • Greater banded hornet (Vespa tropica)
  • Yellow-vented hornet (Vespa analis)

Lesser banded hornet is the most aggressive among the three and will attack in swarms at the slightest provocation. It usually nests high up on trees and away from human dwelling. Greater banded hornet is the largest in size and will usually build nest inside enclosed spaces. Yellow-vented hornet is the least aggressive and will only attack if greatly provoked. It usually builds its nest on trees and in thick foliage.

Hornet builds its nest with paper-like material, which is a mixture of wood fibers and salivary secretions of the females. Bees nest is made of wax which they keep cool on hot days by fanning with their wings.

The mated queen establish a colony on her own during the initial stage whereby she will need to forage for food, feeding the young, and collecting wood for nest construction. With the maturation of the first brood of workers, the queen gives up all her duties except that of egg laying. Adult hornet feed mainly on fruit juices and other sweet material while the larvae are fed bits of soft-bodied insects.

The workers apparently do not feed the larvae out of “love”. The larvae are given protein food by the adult and in return, secreting a sugar-containing substance which the adults lap-up. This exchange of material is called “trophallaxis”.

The honey bee is a social insect living in large colonies ranging from 20,000 to 80,000 individuals. Honey bees are the only social bee or wasp that has a true perennial colony surviving many years. The honey bee is likely the most important beneficial insect in agriculture due to its role as a pollinator.

When the honey bee stings, the stinger, venom sac, muscle, and other parts of the bee’s anatomy are torn from its body and it soon dies. The action of the honey bee sting takes place almost instantaneously. The sting has barbs on it, and if it is not immediately removed, the reflex action of the muscles attached to the sting drive it deeper and deeper into the skin, thus permitting more time for the discharge of venom from the venom sac.

Three types of individuals (or castes) can at one time or another be found in a honeybee colony: the queen, worker (sterile female), and drone (male). Only one egg-laying queen exists in each hive, and the bulk of the colony consists of workers who build and repair the hive, forage for nectar and pollen, produce wax and honey, feed the young, and protect the hive against enemies. The male or drones, have but one purpose in life: to mate with virgin queen after which they are not permitted to return to the hive. Drones are large and buzz ferociously. But lack a sting and are harmless. Occasionally, a queen will die or will leave a crowded hive, accompanied by a portion of the worker population, to search out a new nesting activity (swarming). At such times, in the absence of “queen substance”, one or more diploid eggs and larvae will develop into fertile females (if attending workers feed them sufficient “royal jelly”). One dominant female will emerge, eliminate the competition, and mate with an available drone, thus preserving the continued survival of the colony.

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